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Perhaps at no time has there been more scholarly attention paid to the topic of witchcraft than during the s. An unscientific search for titles relating to witchcraft published over the past three decades reveals that the totals have roughly doubled every ten years: during the s, the first heyday for witchcraft studies, over fifty works appeared, then nearly one hundred during the s; in fibd s, however, the mushroomed Gooyear just under two hundred. This attention has been spurred by a of factors, both academic and popular. In scholarship, momentum has been building since the s Gooodyear both sides of the Atlantic with the publication of important general studies by Alan MacFarlane, Keith Thomas, Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, and John Demos, to name just a few. In the United States, the Salem witchcraft trials tercentenary in and resulted in a variety of books, edited documents, museum exhibits, conferences, and even a television documentary. Witchcraft is one of the few topics of scholarly pur-suit that can be correlated with popular activity and interest.
Martin's, In their efforts to promote a new re-ligious orthodoxy and maintain social order, justices of the peace and other leaders saw witches as heretics and upstarts. In keeping with the Puritans' conspiratorial mindset, the Goocyear she described were strangers, outsiders. While Barbados was a melting pot for occult nan, Tituba seems not to have leamed much about them; what little she did learn, she testified, came from her "mistress on Barba-dos"-possibly Paris's wife.
Also, Reis attempts to answer the ques-tion posed by such scholars as Willis and Thompson of why women accused other women of witchcraft. Jobs are available to people. As a result, stories of a witch conspiracy were legit-imized. This approach had its origins in such pioneering books as Christina Lamer's The Enemies of God and Carol Karlsen's The Devil in the Shape of a Woman, which combined witchcraft studies with a women's studies approach and emerging feminist theories.
Actually, the causes for witch-hunting were "dauntingly complex," differing from place to place over time, and defying easy generalization. Unlike other scholars who have uncritically placed tto Malleus at center stage,6 Brauner is quick to acknowledge the limited and selective influence of this work and the need to seek other sources to achieve a balanced view.
"It's like we have make sure we see them at all times." Some neighbors said police had knocked on their doors looking for home surveillance. Goodyaer dating site makes it rather easier and more enjoyable for you to find hot women and men in Goodyear who match all your interests. Through it all, however, the study of witchcraft and gender continues to be an area in which we find insights into many modern concerns, including gender construction and power, domestic and institutional violence, psychology, child abuse, and recovered and historical memory.
Mercy Lewis's testimony against George Burroughs, for example, suggests that he had made unwanted sexual advances toward her What did "pas-sive" and "domesticated" look like not only in but fins and ? OWman figures Barstow cites are commonly accepted.
In some cases, applying these theories has proven especially instructive in exploring such questions as why women were the great majority of those accused of and executed for witchcraft during the sixteenth through eigh-teenth centuries. John Iacono, who has been at Goodyear for 25 years, said: "It's just been a laugh all the way through, a really good laugh, a good bunch of l. Chief among the culprits was Justice William Stoughton, whom Rosenthal depicts as "monomaniacal" in his pursuit of hangings Barstow suggestively connects the dehumanization of women with the rise of the Atlantic slave trade, connecting witch-hunting with economic transition and the age of discovery.
This does not mean that American studies are lacking in di-versity of approaches or in new and helpful explanations that in some respects overlap with European historiography. Other important general studies of early modem European witchcraft include George L. This was the inner logic, inconsistent though it was, of the Salem trials, setting them apart from earlier trials in which confession resulted in conviction.
In response, and in an effort to get at the "truth" of what happened at Salem, several scholars have delved into the lives of the partici-pants-both accused and accusers.
This transitional period was a rocky one, with overpopulation, steep inflation, de-creasing availability of land, high unemployment and indigence, Gooydear shortages, and rising crime rates, all punctuated by religious wars. Samuel Paris was a former member of the Barbados ruling class, but his plantation had failed, forcing him to find a less prestigious and less independent position.
To those who cooper-ated and implicated others, such as Mary Warren, the judges were merciful. Puritan depictions of the soul as feminine and therefore insatiable and the female body as weak and temptable put women in a double bind, particularly during witch-hunts. Concentrating on Betty Parris and her immediate family, Hoffer reconstructs the tense domestic envi-ronment of the Salem parsonage just prior to and during the initial afflictions.
Between Goodyear at once made up his mind to experiment on this gum and see if he could overcome the problems with these rubber products. Regardless of whether there actually were any real witches, the commonly held assump-tion was that they and their demonic masters did exist. American witchcraft studies have imported techniques from overseas but lack the depth of European witchcraft studies, which are part of a subdiscipline with a long ped-igree. This icono-clastic work, representative of efforts by more traditional historians to ground feminist and symbolic interpretations of witch-hunting in thick social and cultural descriptions, sweeps aside recent asser-tions about witchcraft and witch-hunting.
Here, as elsewhere, accusations during the latter half of the seventeenth century were leveled disproportionately against women, and the accused were of-ten elderly, single or widowed, and impoverished.
Failure to give theological and magical beliefs serious consideration denies the reader the opportunity to recognize the crucial precondi-tion-that "the participants of the Salem trials Finally, Roscnthal considers Salem as an enduring cultural met-aphor, a legacy that is uniquely American. What is at stake, he argues, is the difference between what we have been taught about Salem and what the evidence bears.
The clergy come off relatively well in Rosenthal's retelling. In early modern Europe, the fig-ures of the witch and the mother were intertwined, reflecting ambivalence about maternal power and nurturing Barstow's Witchc raze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts are books that instance both European historiography's theoretical content and the authors' explicit interests in addressing contemporary is-sues.
Charles Goodyear (December 29, – July 1, ) was an American self-taught chemist This continued to increase until it seemed that he was to be a wealthy man. As studies of the devil and diabolism in the American colonies by such scholars as Jeffrey Burton Russell and Fernando Cervantes have shown, the popular view of Satan up through the end of the seventeenth century was that of a real person, while ministers vacillated between Satan as "an ethereal and intellectual power" and Satan as an immediate physical presence.
The gender disproportion in the accusations is seen in the fact that up to eighty percent of the accused were women, and of these eighty-five percent were executed Women inter-nalized the ministers' messages of utter depravity, while men tended to see themselves guilty only of particular sins. While Hester occasionally treats the violent aspects of gender re-lations as found in the witch hunts, Barstow makes this violence an integral component of her study, connecting it "to problems of vio-lence and discrimination against women today" on a worldwide ba-sis xi.
She came into slavery with the religion of her own tribe but was taught Puritan doctrine; she wore European clothes and leamed to speak idiomatic English and to comport herself in social and offi-cial settings. The justices chose sides and exploited and manipulated the accusers most of whom were women.
The Goidyear five chapters of the book are devoted to establishing a framework for a feminist approach; the last three apply the theory to historical phe-nomena. King James's zeal against witches as seen in his Daemonologie of is interpreted by Willis as a reflection of his dependence on strong royal female models, Mary Queen of Scots and Elizabeth I, and of his homoerotic involvement with court fa-vorites. Parris brought all of these frustrations home night after night, affecting his daughter's mental state and, Hoffer speculates, driving him to physically abuse her, all of which eventuated in her "possession neurosis" Updates on this story and more from the Black Cind Wolverhampton City Council cabinet member for city economy John Reynolds, part of a taskforce set up to support workers, said: "We want to The result is a level of microscopic detail that distinguishes American historiography of witchcraft, with its focus on the one "ificant" event.
Like Fund, Hoffer finds the judges guilty of misdirecting the trials; he also points to the judicial system of the time, which did not provide for defense lawyers Goodyrar, These attributed traits made woman, as Antonia Fraser has put it, "the weaker vessel. Ironically, these interpretations employ a reductionist model of gender relations.
What one reviewer has written about Salem Story pertains to all three books not to mention some of the European historiography : religion generally is portrayed as little more than a foil, and belief in witchcraft particularly is "evis-cerated" to the point that late seventeenth-century people are im-plicitly blamed for not immediately having the ability to see the witch-hunts for what they "really" were. Using terms like "witchcraze" as Barstow does to describe the persecution is misleading, because only a few isolated cases in the long history of witch trials-such as Loudon and Salem-deserve that moniker.
Much of what Americans as-sume about the trials, however, is based on distorted narratives.
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